How glaciers carved Lake Louise & the Rockies: what remains today

Everywhere, the Canadian Rockies are scoured and marked by the power of ice. We have these powerful glaciers to thank for much of the beauty we now enjoy. Banff NP’s Lake Louise at 1,731m elevation is one example of one such famous site created by glacial erosion.

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The Victoria Glacier above the head of Lake Louise, feeds the glacial lake with meltwater.

Above the head of the lake lies Victoria Glacier, a valley glacier, which feeds Lake Louise with beautiful blue-green meltwater (Britannica). Years ago, the Victoria glacier probably once extended much further into the valley while only a fraction of it remains today.

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How the montane & thermal springs provide habitat in Banff’s iconic Bow Valley

The Bow Valley of Banff NP, which today provides a rich habitat we are familiar with, was once covered by glaciers and ice 20,000 years ago during a period of time known as the Last Glacial Maximum. Glaciers carved through the mountains, creating a U-shaped valley with a flat bottom and steep sides. These glaciers disappeared from the Bow Valley by about 13,000 years ago, beginning the development of today’s modern montane valley (Reasoner and Huber, 1999).

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The Bow River Valley on a rainy day in  Banff, AB, Banff NP viewed from Tunnel Mountain. The Vermillion Lakes (discussed below) are on the far right of the photo.

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Why does 400ppm matter? & what it has to do with the Pliocene

In May 2013, the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawai’i recorded the first time global carbon dioxide levels surpassed 400ppm (parts per million). As of this Tuesday, we are sitting at 403.98ppm and have been over 400ppm for much of the last year (Scripps). This observatory has been measuring atmospheric carbon dioxide since 1958. So, you might ask, why is the number 400 so important?

Average atmospheric carbon dioxide levels for the last 12 months at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawai’i. (From: Scripps Institution of Oceanography

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